The class of psychoactive drugs known as “benzos” (BZD, or BDZ, BZs) is made up of benzodiazepines, also called “benzos” and consists of a mixture of a benzene-ring and a diazepine-ring. They are used to treat anxiety, insomnia, and seizures. Leo Sternbach accidentally discovered the first benzodiazepine, chlordiazepoxide (“Librium”), in 1955. Hoffmann-La Roche made it available in 1960. Valium (Diazepam) was soon to follow in 1963. Benzodiazepines were still the most commonly prescribed medication worldwide by 1977. The introduction of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) among other factors led to a decrease in prescription rates, but they are still widely used today.

Benzodiazepines, which are depressants, increase the neurotransmitter Gamma-aminobutyric Acid (GABA)’s effect at the GABAA receiver. This results in sedative, anti-anxiety, muscle relaxant and hypnotic properties. Anterograde amnesia or dissociation may be caused by high doses of shorter-acting benzodiazepines. These properties make benzodiazepines effective in treating anxiety, panic disorder and insomnia. They can also be used to treat alcohol withdrawal, muscle spasms and muscle spasms. There are three types of benzodiazepines: short, intermediate, and long-acting. For the treatment and prevention of insomnia, short- and intermediate-acting benzodiazepines will be preferred. Longer-acting benzodiazepines should be used to treat anxiety.

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